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Category Archives: solar lighting

Charge Controller

 

The smart charge controller will be used in the project to protect the battery from over-charge and over-discharge.
The critical requirements for the charge controller are listed below:
 *The rated power of the charge controller should be matched with System
 Reverse current protection at night
 Three-stage battery charging (bulk, absorption and float) with optional
Temperature compensation
 Automatic overload protection
 Microprocessor controlled
 *The warrantee period must be at least 2-3 years.

 Adjustable low voltage disconnect
 MPPT or PWM charging
 *In built dimming function for night light management
 *Ingress Protection rating 65 
Inbuilt driver

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Batteries

 

The critical requirements for the battery are listed below:
 *The battery to be used in the project must be maintenance free deep cycle tubular VRLA Gel Type Battery.
 *Total backup time duration will be minimum twelve hours at 80% DOD
 *The battery Voltage should be compatible with the solar module
 The battery to be used must have passed the test according to IEC 61427-2005
Battery enclosure should be water proof, IP 65, with lockable arrangement.
 *The warrantee period must be at least 2 years.

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PV modules

 

The critical requirements for PV modules are:
 *Type of PV modules must be crystalline silicon, either mono-C-Si or Poly C-Si;

 *The PV module must be certified by IEC 61215; IEC 61730 and the valid certificates must be provided.
 *The PV module efficiency (full size) must not be less than 14%.
 *The lifetime of the selected PV modules should be longer than 25 years. The degradation within first year must not be less than 3%.
 *The warrantee period for PV Module must be at least 10 years against a maximum 10% reduction of output power at STC.
 The manufacturer’s serial number should be inside the glass of PV Module.

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Wind solar hybrid Batteries

Wind solar hybrid Batteries

The critical requirements for the wind solar hybrid battery are listed below:

*The wind solar hybrid battery to be used in the project must be maintenance free deep cycle tubular VRLA Gel Type Battery.

*Total backup time duration will be minimum twelve hours at 80% DOD

*The wind solar hybrid battery Voltage should be compatible with the solar module

*The solar battery to be used must have passed the test according to IEC 61427-2005

*Battery enclosure should be water proof, IP 65, with lockable arrangement.

*The warrantee period must be at least 2 years.

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How to be street light solar PV modules

How to be street light solar PV modules

 

The critical requirements for street light solar PV modules are:
 *Type of PV modules must be crystalline silicon, either mono-C-Si or Poly C-Si;

 *The PV module must be certified by IEC 61215; IEC 61730 and the valid certificates must be provided.
 *The PV module efficiency (full size) must not be less than 14%.
 *The lifetime of the selected PV modules should be longer than 25 years. The degradation within first year must not be less than 3%.
 *The warrantee period for PV Module must be at least 10 years against a maximum 10% reduction of output power at STC.
 The manufacturer’s serial number should be inside the glass of street light solar PV Module.

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solar street lighting

1. A good solar street lighting supplier can provide as following:

A. Submittals shall include estimates of:

• Submittals shall include the following calculations, design information and product specs.
• ”Days of Storage” battery capacity calculation will be based on an assumption of no sun. Greater than 3 days of no sun energy storage is required for longest night length of the year, which is proper hours for location.

• Battery cycle life using battery manufacturer’s cycle life vs. average depth of discharge shall exceed 3000 cycles at 25◦ C the estimated depth of discharge.

• Worst case (winter) average PV panel amp-hour production to specific worst case amp-hour load ratio (Array-to-Load Ratio). Calculations of Array-to-Load shall using 3.19 watt-hrs/m2 of solar irradiance or less as the average design irradiance. Calculations of Array-to-Load shall be based on the lowest average irradiance data from an accredited source (e.g. NREL TMY2), with an additional derating factor of 0.75 to account for worst-case conditions. Calculation should also take into account other aspects that could affect PV panel output, including temperature, shading, snow or dust coverage and non-optimal orientation. Actual maximum LED Junction Temperature (Tj) using testing at stabilized 55° C ambient, maximum drive current, measured solder joint temperature (Tsj) or case , Temperature Tc and LED manufacturer’s estimate of thermal resistance between“case” or solder joint and junction.
• Line drawing of lighting system(s)
• Wiring diagram(s)
• Calculation of Effective Projected Area (EPA) of the lighting system, along with reference to the AASHTO design wind speed for the area and the EPA rating of the pole.

B. Line drawing of lighting

C. Wiring diagram(s)

D. Photometric Plots on surface from defined lamp height

E. Calculation of Effective Projected Area (EPA) of the lighting system, along with reference to the AASHTO design wind speed for the area and the EPA rating of the pole.

F. Solar street lighting specification sheets .

G. List of customer references that have deployed similar system .

H. Installation Instructions .

I. Shall include all exceptions taken to the specification .

J. Warranty

It is the comlete details should be provided.
2. Solar street lighting conditions:

A. PV solar street lighting shall be rated to operate in an ambient temperature range of -4°C (24.8°F) and 55°C (131°F) and up to 100% relative humidity.

B. All solar street lighting Electronic components shall be rated for between -4°C (24.8°F) and 60°C (140°F) or better.
C. PV module, mounting system, pole and footing must be rated for local wind loading conditions.

D. PV module must withstand Hailstone impact described in ASTM E1038-93 and Surface Cut Susceptibility tests (UL 1703-24)

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How to be solar street light charge controller

How to be solar street light charge controller

Solar Charge Controller

Solar Charge Controller

The solar street light charge controller charge controller will be used in the project to protect the battery from over-charge and over-discharge.

The critical requirements for the solar street light charge controller are listed below:

 The rated power of the solar street light charge controller should be matched with System

 Reverse current protection at night

 Three-stage battery charging (bulk, absorption and float) with optional

Temperature compensation

 Automatic overload protection

 Microprocessor controlled

 The warrantee period must be at least 2-3 years.

 Adjustable low voltage disconnect

 MPPT or PWM charging

 In built dimming function for night light management

 Ingress Protection rating 65

 Inbuilt driver

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Photovoltaic system market development

The current levels of dependence on fossil fuels, the need of reducing the carbon emissions associated with energy use and the prospects of developing a new and extremely innovative technology sector, make photovoltaic systems increasingly attractive. In the last years the photovoltaic system market expanded extensively, especially in Germany, followed by Spain and Italy. In addition, Greece is due to be the next fast-growing market. Several incentives have stimulated the expansion, rendering the photovoltaics industry ready to expand. However, the high production cost of electricity, due to the significant capital investment cost, is the main barrier to large-scale deployment of photovoltaics system.

Photovoltaic system

Photovoltaic system

Competition is increasing. New technologies are being developed. Solar photovoltaic systems today are more than 60 % cheaper than they were in the 1990s. The focus lies now on cost reduction and lowest cost per rated watt in order to reach competitiveness with all sources of electricity in the medium term. In the 1997 White Paper (1), the European Commission set a target of 3 000 MW of photovoltaic system capacity to be installed in Europe by 2010. Figure 1 demonstrates the current growth. The White Paper target, already exceeded in 2006, has been more than tripled in 2008, marking the success of the European sector. In 2010 the total cumulative capacity installed in the European Union could be as much as 16 000 MW.

The European photovoltaic system industry currently has an important role in photovoltaic system technology development, capturing about 30 % of the world market of photovoltaic modules.

In 2008, the photovoltaic system capacity installed in the EU was about 4 600 MW, with a total cumulative capacity of more than 9 500 MW achieved. This illustrates an increase of 200 % with respect to 2006. Within the EU market, practically the whole of the newly installed capacity is focused on grid-connected power plants. More than 56 % of the EU-27 photovoltaic system installations are located in Germany.

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Photovoltaic lighting system technology

 

Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the devices which directly convert sunlight into electricity. The solar cell is the elementary building block of the Photovoltaic lighting system technology. Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. One of the properties of semiconductors that makes them most useful is that their conductivity may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice.

Photovoltaic lighting system

Photovoltaic lighting system

For instance, in the fabrication of a Photovoltaic lighting system solar cell, silicon, which has four valence electrons, is treated to increase its conductivity. On one side of the cell, the impurities, which are phosphorus atoms with five valence electrons (n-donor), donate weakly bound valence electrons to the silicon material, creating excess negative charge carriers. On the other side, atoms of boron with three valence electrons (p-donor) create a greater affinity than silicon to attract electrons. Because the p-type silicon is in intimate contact with the n-type silicon a p-n junction is established and a diffusion of electrons occurs from the region of high electron concentration (the n-type side) into the region of low electron concentration (p-type side). When the electrons diffuse across the p-n junction, they recombine with holes on the p-type side. However, the diffusion of carriers does not occur indefinitely, because the imbalance of charge immediately on either sides of the junction originates an electric field. This electric field forms a diode that promotes current to flow in only one direction. Ohmic metal-semiconductor contacts are made to both the n-type and p-type sides of the solar cell, and the electrodes are ready to be connected to an external load.

When photons of light fall on the cell, they transfer their energy to the charge carriers. The electric field across the junction separates photo-generated positive charge carriers (holes) from their negative counterpart (electrons). In this way an electrical current is extracted once the circuit is closed on an external load.

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European Photovoltaic Introduction

Over the last decade, European photovoltaic companies have achieved an average annual production growth rate of over 40 %. Currently the turnover of the photovoltaic industry amounts to some EUR 10 billion. The European market is characterised by a dominant German market while other European countries – like Spain, Italy, France and Greece – have recently boosted their share. For the whole European Union (EU), approximately 70 000 people are employed by the photovoltaic sector. Although productivity in the photovoltaic industry progresses with automated production and reduced unit and system costs, the rapid market growth will create new jobs in Europe.

Support for the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies is available through the EU Framework Programme (FP) for research. Through a series of research FPs, the European Commission has maintained long-term support for research, development and demonstration in the photovoltaic sector, providing a framework within which researchers and industry can work together to develop photovoltaic technology and applications. Within the 6th Framework Programme (FP6, 2003-06), the European Commission committed EUR 105.6 million for supporting photovoltaic research, development and demonstration (RD&D) thus continuing co-financing the development of solar electricity in Europe.

This synopsis describes the projects funded under FP6, in the research, development and demonstration domain, their aims and the achieved results. In addition, it outlines four photovoltaic projects funded under the first Intelligent Energy – Europe programme (IEE-I, 2003-06) which tackles the ‘softer’, non-technological factors and ran in parallel with FP6.

The impact of EU programmes on the development of photovoltaics can be examined on several levels. The announcement of champion cell efficiencies achieved in EU projects is an obvious indicator. Indeed one key impact, which arguably only really began to manifest itself within the current environment of dynamic market growth, is the creation of know-how, resulting in start-up companies. For example, many of the European companies producing thin-film photovoltaics have their origins in EU projects. There is also significant anecdotal evidence that start-up companies receiving support from EU RD&D projects can successfully attract investment from larger companies that are looking to broaden their technology portfolio. FP6 coincided with a remarkable period of sustained high growth of photovoltaics. As a result of such growth, the role and objectives of European RD&D have been re-examined, with the aim of maximising the effect of available public funds, including national and regional funds. Two initiatives – the European Photovoltaic Technology Platform and PV-ERA-NET – which began during FP6, have been active in recent years in improving the overall coordination of the photovoltaic sector at European level.
The budget for the 7th Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-13) has significantly risen compared with the previous programme, and will run for seven years. Calls for proposals based on topics identified in the work programme are launched on an annual basis.

FP7 has begun with less emphasis on the development of traditional wafer-based silicon for photovoltaic solar cells – the focus of increasing R&D investment by companies and national programmes. Material developm ent for longer-term applications, concentration photo voltaic and manufacturing process development have attracted most European funding. Furthermore, significant funding is expected to be made available for thin-film technology in future years.

The potential of solar electricity and its contribution to the EU’s electricity generation for 2020 has recently been reassessed by the photovoltaic industry. This ambition needs now to be made concrete in a realistic European Solar Initiative to make the sector realise its full potential.

Variable electricity generation (as with solar photovoltaic), at high penetration level, will bring additional challenges to power systems. Furthermore, quality and longevity of photovoltaic devices and systems, and profitable lifecycle features of whole photovoltaic systems, will become increasingly important in such a highly competitive world market. These are parts of the RD&D needs which future activities should address.

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